Black-headed Munia    Lonchura Malacca

Etymology :

  • Lonchura : Greek word lonkhe – spear-head, lance;   oura –  {Spear like tail}
  • Malacca: From Malaysia

Vernacular Names :Hindi: Nakalnor, Teliamunia, Sing-baz, Poramunia, Nukroul, Ben: Nakalnur, Mani: Ushuk, Guj: Shyamsharirtapushiyu, Ta: Thinaikuruvi, Nellu-kuruvi, Te: Nallajinuwayi, Mal: Attachemban, Kan: Kapputaleyamunia, Sinh: Wee-kurulla, Mar: KalyaDokyachiManoli

Distribution in India: Resident in Peninsular India and some parts of Gujrat

Description: Size of 11–12 cm; wt. of 9·8-14·4 g. It has glossy black on head to nape, side of neck and upper breast. The mantle to back and upperwingarechestnut-brown, rump and uppertail-coverts are brighter chestnut. It has a  short tail that is dull chest­nut-brown with reddish-chestnut to reddish-gold fringes, fringes widest on central pair; lower breast and flanks are white, belly, thighs and undertail-coverts are black; iris is dark brown, eyering is light grey; billis light grey; legs are grey. Both the sexes are alike. The juvenile is warm brown above, buff below.

Habitat: It is Found in grassland, wet and marshy areas, scrub and parkland. It is found from plains to 2100 m.

Food Habits: It is a grain/Seed eaters. it is found in Marshy areas with lots of Tall grass and reeds. It feeds on the reed corns and any spilt grains and seeds.

Breeding Habits: They breed in any month, mainly in monsoon season, in India.The nest is a ball of grass with side entrance, placed in thicket, bush, tall grass or reeds. They lay a clutch of 4–5 eggs.The incubation is done by both parents, taking turns during day, both in nest at night. The incubation period is 12–13 days. The Chicks are Precocial (with open eyes and down feathers). They are fed insects initially for faster growth and water content. The nestling period is 3 weeks.

They were designated as the National birds of Philippines till 1995.