Flame-throated Bulbul    Pycnonotus( melanicterus) gularis


  • Pycnonotus : Greek word puknos thick, compact; notos –backed { thick backed}
  • Melanicterus: Greek word melas- black; ikteros -jaundice-yellow. { yellowish black}
  • Gularis: Latin word gula- throat

Vernacular Names: Mar: manik-kanthi Bulbul

This is the state bird of Goa

Distribution in India: Resident of Western Ghats of India

Description: Size of 18–19 cm. It is a slim, noisy, relatively inconspicuous bulbul with very short, ragged occipital crest, relatively short, very slightly rounded tail. The head, including crest, is glossy black; upperparts are yellowish-olive-green, wings are browner with golden-olive fringes; tail is bright olive with small creamy-white tips at corners; deep flame-coloured orange throat patch, breast is orange-yellow with only a little olive mixed in, rest of underparts are bright yellow; iris is pale yellow; bill is black; legs are dusky grey-green to blackish-grey or horny brown. Both the sexes are alike. The juvenile has brownish-black head, yellow throat.

Habitat:It is found Flame-throated Bulbuls are found on scrub habitats, evergreen forest, thickets along rivers, mixed bamboo and evergreen, and old forest clearings overgrown with secondary jungle and tangles of Mimosa, Lantana, etc. They prefer dry-deciduous and scrub forests with stunted vegetation on the hilly slopes. They occurs in the lowlands and foothills of the Ghats

Food Habits: They feed on insects, figs and the berries of various scrub plant species. They forage within bushes for fruit, nectar and insects

Breeding Habits: The breeding season is mainly Feb–Apr. The nest is very small cup of yellow dead leaves bound lightly with cobwebs and grass stalks with a slight lining of grass, looking like a casual wind-blown accumulation of rubbish. Both sexes participate in nest construction. They lay a clutch of 2-3 eggs. The female incubate the eggs. The incubation period is 18 to 20 days. The male always remains outside the nest area. During this period the male supplys the food to the female outside the nest for feeding the nestlings.