Indian Spot-billed Duck    Anas poecilorhyncha


  • Anas : Latin word for Duck
  • Poecilorhyncha : Greek word poikilos -spotted; rhunkhos -bill { Spot billed}

Vernacular Names : Sind: Hanjar, Hindi: Garm pai, Gugral, Sans: Gharghar hansak, Pun: Bindi chunjha, Bi: Laddin, Ass: Bor mugi hanh, Mani: Kara, Nepal: Naddun, Guj: Teelavali batak, Tiliyali batak, Mar: Plava, Dhanwar, Haldi Kunku Badak Ta: Manjal mooku thara, Te: Budidarangu batu

Distribution in India: Wide spread Resident.

Description: Size of 58–63 cm; wt. of male 1230–1500 g, female 790–1360 g; wingspan of 83–94 cm. The terminal half of inner tertials white, contrasting strongly with dark plumage; bill is black with broad yellow tip and black nail, and yellow to orange area at base; eyes are brown; and legs and feet are dull orange. The male has variable red area at base of bill which becomes large and bright in breeding season, but lacks eclipse plumage. The female averages slightly smaller than male, The juvenile tends to be duller overall, with smaller markings on breast and flanks, and lacks red bill spot. The subspecies haringtoni is similar to nominate, but smaller, with more uniform underparts and less or no red on base of bill.

Habitat: It is found in inland and coastal wetlands, preferably in open low ground, with shallow, fresh waters and abundant emergent vegetation.

Food Habits: It eats seeds and vegetative parts of grasses, sedges and aquatic vegetation; occasionally water insects and their larvae, worms and molluscs and water snails .It sometimes feeds nocturnally. It feeds by dabbling, head-dipping and upending in shallow waters; also by walking about and grubbing in marshland.

Breeding Habits:  They breed in Jul–Oct in North India and Nov–Dec in South India. The nest is a pad of grass and weeds, usually lined with some feathers and down feathers, sited on ground, concealed among herbaceous vegetation, or in trees. They lay a clutch of 7–9 eggs .The incubation period is 24–28 days, done by female alone, guarded by males. The fledging period is 49-56 days guarded by both parents.